Islamic History – 066


  1. The Treaty of Sevres was a 1920 treaty signed between the Allies of World War-I and the Ottoman Empire. The treaty ceded large parts of Ottoman territory to France, the United Kingdom, Greece and Italy and created large occupation zones within the Ottoman Empire.
  2. The Iraqi invasion of Iran was launched by Saddam Hussein on 22nd September and lasted until 7th December 1980.
  3. Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad, one of the first madrasas, was established by Nizam al-Mulk in 1065.
  4. The tomb Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) is located at the Masjid-e-Khalil in Hebron in the occupied West Bank (Palestine) where he is buried with his wife Sarah (may Allah be pleased with her). Hazrat Ibrahim (AS) was called Judd-ul-Anbiya.
  5. The system of calling ‘Azan’ was introduced, as suggested by Hazrat Umar Farooq (RA). The salat of Taraweeh was also initiated by him and the second Azan for the Jummah prayer was introduced by Hazrat Usman (RA).
  6. The jizya was a poll tax that all non- Muslim, adult males living in territories controlled by Islamic governments were required to pay. Zakat is a tax collected from Muslim citizens. The second pious caliph, Umar bin Khattab(RA), fixed the jizyah at 48 “dirhams” for the wealthy, 24 for the middle classes, and 12 for the poor.
  7. Non-Muslims living in an Islamic state were called ‘Dhimmis’. The word ‘dhimmah’ means ‘pledge’ or ‘guarantee’.
  8. Ushur refers to taxes levied on gains in commerce and industry undertaken by citizens regardless of their religion. Ushr is a ten per cent tax on the produce of rain-fed land (five per cent if the land is irrigated), and it is also levied in Pakistan.
  9. Kharaj is a tax on the proceeds from land owned by non-Muslims who are not subject to ushr.
  10. Khums is one fifth of the “booty” Muslims capture in battles against non-believers, which is to be turned over to the state.
  11. The Quba mosque is situated about 4 kms outside Medina. It has been called as Masjid At-Taqwa, a mosque founded in piety (9:104).
  12. Hazrat Umar (RA) established a department of finance under the name of Dewan which was in charge of the revenue administration of the centre as well as the provinces.
  13. Soon after the demise of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) many Beduin tribes refused to pay Zakat to Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA). This is why he also waged Jehad against them.
  14. The ring of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was crafted in 6 AH after the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah by Ya’la ibn Umayyah (RA) in Madinah.
  15. The Al-Azhar, a major mosque and institution of learning founded in the Egyptian city Cairo by the Fatimid Imam-Caliph al-Mu’izz, was inaugurated on June 22, 972 CE.
  16. Hazrat Ibraham (AS) built the House of the Kaaba according to Gabriel’s instruction, and with the assistance of Hazrat Ismael (AS). Surah 2 : 127 / 121 clearly mentions this.
  17. In the Qur’an there are 15 Sajdah in 14 surahs . This means that one Surah has two sajdah. It is called Surah Al – Hajj (The Pilgrimage), chapter 22. 
  18. There is one surah in the Qur’an called Surah Sajdah. It is chapter 32.
  19. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) received the first Wahi at the age of 40 years, inside the cave Hira, based on the first 5 verses of Surah ‘Alaq. Thereafter there was a gap of about three years after which ‘Wahi’ started coming to him regularly.
  20. The prayer on the occasion of ‘solar eclipse’ is called Salat-ul Kusoof. The prayer on the occasion of ‘lunar eclipse’ is called Salat-ul Khusoof. Salat-ul Istisqa is performed when the need for rain is extreme.
  21. Surah Noah is the 71 Surah of the Holy Qur’an. Hazrat Noah (AS) was the first to taste wine in the human history and he had no way of knowing all its effects. The nation of Hazrat Noah (AS) was exterminated throughout the scourge of floods. Prophet Noah’s preaching spanned 950 years according to the Qur’an. The nation of Hazrat Noah (AS) worshipped five idols, named Wadh, Suwa, Yaghuth, Yauq and Nasr. According to the Quran, Hazrat Noah’s (AS) son Yam, was a disbeliever who refused to come aboard the Ark, instead preferring to climb a mountain, where he drowned. There were 80 people on the Noah’s Ark. The ark came to rest on Mount Judi which is located in present-day Turkey. Hazrat Noah (AS) is titled as: Abul Bashar Sani, Adam Sani and Shaikh-ul-Ambia. His tomb is said to be in the town of Najaf in Iraq.
  22. An Arabian historian and geographer Abu al – Hassan al Masudi, a native of Baghdad, was called the “Herodotus of the Arabs”. Baghdad was founded by the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur in 762 AD.
  23. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) declared testimony of Hazrat Khuzaimah bin Thabit (RA) is equal to that of two men.
  24. Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, stands on the banks of the river The port city of Basra straddles the Shatt al-Arab. The Abbasid capital was removed from Baghdad to ‘Samarra’, a newly founded city in 836, during the reign of al-Mu’tasim.
  25. Hazrat Ilyas (AS) sacrificed a bull, placed woods on it and the fire came from the sky to cook that meat.
  26. Holy Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) had a seal made of silver, with the words Muḥammad rasūl Allāh or “Muhammad the Apostle of God. The seal affixed on important letters waslater taken in the custody under Hazrat Khuzaifa (RA).
  27. Hazrat Younus (AS) is called Zun-Noon. Hazrat Younus (AS) was in the abdomen of the fish for 40 days. Surah Younus is the 10th Surah. The name of Hazrat Younus (AS) is mentioned four times in the Holy Quran. Hazrat Younus (AS) is called Sahib-ul-Hoot (Companion of the Whale) in the Holy Quran. Hazrat Younus (AS) is called Jonah in English.
  28. The two prayers which have no Azan are Eid and Janaza. There are four Farz (compulsory) components in Wuzu (Ablution).
  29. Namaz-e-Taraweeh is Sunnah and Eid prayers are Waajib (obligatory).
  30. For 53 years, Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) lived in Makkah. There are 28 Madni Surahs and 86 are Makki in the Holy Quran.