List of Nobel Prize Winners 2021 (Physics, Chemistry, Economics, Peace, Literature & Medicine)

Nobel Prize Awards & Asia’s version of Nobel Prize Awards For CSS MCQs-based Preliminary Test (MPT) and FPSC, PPSC and SPSC General Recruitment Tests | List of Nobel Prize Winners 2021 | Compiled and Edited by Aamir Mahar

Topics included in the PDF document:

  1. Introduction to Nobel Prizes

  2. First Nobel Prize Holders, 1901

  3. List of Nobel Prize Winners 2021

  4. Important Pointers on Nobel Prizes

  5. Asia’s version of Nobel Prize Awards

Introduction to Nobel Prizes

The Nobel Prize Awards is one of the most prestigious Awards across the world which are presented in the different fields of academic, cultural or scientific advances. Every year person who do notable work in the fields of chemistry, medicine, economics, literature, physics, and bring peace in the world are awarded Nobel Prize. The foundation of Nobel Prize was laid by Alfred Nobel, on 27th November 1895. Alfred Nobel was a Swedish chemist who invented Dynamite. He signed his last testimony and gave away a large share of his possession and fortunes to a series of prizes in the fields of Literature, Physics, Chemistry, Physiology and Peace. A sixth prize, in Economic Sciences, was established in 1968 by Sveriges Riksbank (the Swedish central bank) and is known as the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel. The Nobel Peace Prize is presented in Oslo, Norway before the King of Norway on 10th December each year (Nobel died on December 10th, 1896 in Sanremo, Italy). The Peace Prize is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm (Sweden). The first Nobel Prizes were awarded in the year 1901, which is five years after Nobel Alfred’s death.

List of Nobel Prize Winners 2021

Fields

Winners 

Description

Physiology or Medicine

David Julius of the University of California utilised capsaicin, a pungent compound from chili peppers that induces a burning sensation, to identify a sensor in the nerve endings of the skin that responds to heat.

Ardem Patapoutian, who is with Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Scripps Research, used pressure-sensitive cells to discover a novel class of sensors that respond to mechanical stimuli in the skin and internal organs.

Discovery of receptors in the skin that sense heath & touch

 Physics

Syukuro Manabe (Princeton University, USA) and Klaus Hasselmann (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany) awarded for the physical modeling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming”.

Giorgio Parisi (Sapienza University of Rome, Italy) was awarded for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales.

Understanding of Earth’s climate change and other complex physical systems

 Literature

Tanzanian-born novelist, Abdulrazak Gurnah, was born in Zanzibar in 1948 and has since lived in the UK and Nigeria. He writes in English, and his most famous novel is Paradise, which was shortlisted for the Booker prize in 1994. Gurnah currently lives in the UK and taught English Literature at the University of Kent. Until recently, he was Professor of English and Postcolonial Literatures at the University of Kent, Canterbury and has published ten novels and a number of short stories.

Covering the life of refugees and the effect of imperialism and its legacies on the lives of those who have been displaced

 Chemistry

Benjamin List, born 1968 in Frankfurt, Germany. Ph.D. 1997 from Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany. Director of the Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany.

David W.C. MacMillan, born 1968 in Bellshill, UK. Ph.D. 1996 from University of California, Irvine, USA. Professor at Princeton University, USA.

Development of asymmetric organocatalysis

 Peace

Maria Ressa uses freedom of expression to expose abuse of power, use of violence and growing authoritarianism in her native country, the Philippines.

Dmitry Muratov has for decades defended freedom of speech in Russia under increasingly challenging conditions.

Attempt to guard freedom of expression

Economic Sciences

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel 2021 with one half to David Card (University of California, Berkeley, USA) “for his empirical contributions to labour economics”. The other half jointly to Joshua Angrist (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA) and Guido Imbens (Stanford University, USA) “for their methodological contributions to the analysis of causal relationships”.

Completely reshaped empirical work in the economic sciences

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