Misc. Test – 07

  1. Osamu Shimomura, who died on 19th October 2018, won the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovery of Green fluorescent protein. He was from Japan.

  2. On May 21st, 1951, Pakistan established formal diplomatic ties with the People’s Republic of China. Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif’s visit to China in July 2013 – his first official overseas trip since assuming office – during this visit, MoU on China-Pak Economic Corridor (CPEC) was signed on 5th July 2013, in Beijing.  This development happened after Chinese Premier Li Keqiang’s came Pakistan in his first foreign trip on 22nd May 2013 after assuming office in March 2013. On April 20th, 2015, 51 MoUs with a combined value of $46 billion were signed. On 13rd November 2016, CPEC became partly operational when Chinese cargo was transported overland to Gwadar Port for onward maritime shipment to Africa.

  3. Titled “Global Climate Risk Index 2021”, the report by Germanwatch was released on January 25th, 2021 and showed Pakistan drop from 5th most vulnerable country to climate change, to the 8th position.

  4. China finalised a massive 25-year, $400bn strategic partnership deal with Iran, and dropped India from the Chabahar to Zahedan rail project on July 14th, 2020.

  5. The Chabahar Port lies 72 km from the Gwadar Port, situated on the Makran coast of Iran’s Sistan and Balochistan province.  The government of Prime Minister Feroze Khan Noon negotiated the purchase of Gwadar on 8th September, 1958 from the then Sultan of Oman for Rs5.5 billion. It officially became part of Pakistan on the 8th of December, 1958.

  6. Mohammad Rizwan on February 11, 2021 became first-ever Pakistani wicket-keeper to score a century in T20Is. He is also the 2nd wicket-keeper batsman in the world to score a 100 in all three formats of international cricket. The 28-year old cricketer scored an unbeaten 104 off 64 deliveries in Lahore against South Africa.

  7. Bangladesh will host the 36th Regional Conference for Asia  and the Pacific (APRC) of the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2022, for the first time since joining the organization in 1973.

  8. Jeff Bezos will step down as Amazon CEO in July 2021, to be replaced by Andy Jassy.

  9. The Central Asia-South Asia, by the acronym CASA-1000, is a $1.16 billion power project. It includes four countries: Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is called a peace line project, started on May 12th, 2016.

  10. Five cities have been chosen by the IOC to host upcoming Olympic Games: Tokyo (Japan) for the 2020 Summer Olympics from 23rd July to 8th August 2021, Beijing (China) for the 2022 Winter Olympics, Paris (France) for the 2024 Summer Olympics, Milan–Cortina (Italy) for the 2026 Winter Olympics, and Los Angeles (California, the United States) for the 2028 Summer Olympics. This is the second time the Olympics will be held in Tokyo, which previously hosted the Games in 1964. Tokyo led an unsuccessful bid to host the 2016 Olympics. Invitations to the games were sent to countries, states and territories represented by 206 National Olympic Committees and to the Refugee Olympic Team.  Wrestler Inayatullah made history for Pakistan by winning Pakistan’s first medal in the 2018 Youth Olympics, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  11. The Olympic Games are normally held every four years, alternating between the Summer and Winter Olympics every two years in the four-year period.

    The first recorded Olympic Games were held at Olympia in the Greek city-state of Elis in 776 B.C. or 393 A.D. The first modern Olympic Games began on 6th and 15th April, 1896 in Athens, Greece, 280 participants from thirteen countries competed in forty-three events. The Olympic Airlines, formerly called Olympic Airways for at least four decades, was the flag carrier airline of Greece. The airline’s head office was located in Athens, Greece. Chamonix, France held the first Winter Olympics, originally called “International Winter Sports Week that took place January 25–February 5, 1924.

  12. Khan Abdul Ghafar was the only Pakistani who was awarded Bharat Ratna – the highest civilian award of India in 1987 and and the former South African president Nelson Mandela in 1990. India’s first non-Congress prime minister Morarji Desai was awarded the Nishan-e-Pakistan in 1988.

  13. The International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People is an UN-organized day held every year on November 29th. It is observed to mark the anniversary of resolution 181, wherein the Assembly adopted the resolution on the partition of Palestine on November 29th, 1947.

  14. Paul Gardner Allen, an American who created Microsoft with Bill Gates, was died on October 15th, 2018 at the age of 65.

  15. Pakistan and Qatar on February 26th, 2021 signed ten-year long-term Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) supply contract for additional 200 million cubic feet a day (MMCFD) at around 31 per cent lower rate than the 2015 contract for 500 MMCFD.

  16. Russia’s Olympic team was barred from the 2018 Winter Games in Pyeongchang, South Korea. Beijing, China was selected as the host city of the 2022 Winter Olympics after beating Almaty by four votes on 31st July 2015 at the 128th IOC Session in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Olympics rings are composed of five interlocking rings, coloured Blue, Yellow, Black, Green and Red on a white background, known as ‘Olympic ring’. The ring represents five world continents, Africa, Asia, America, Europe and Oceania. The blue ring represents Europe, the red for the Americas, the yellow for Asia, the black for Africa, and the green for Australia and Oceania. The Olympic Flame was first lit in the opening ceremony of the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

  17. Pakistan launched the phone services in Wana in South Waziristan on February 28th, 2019.

  18. The World Book Day is observed on 23rd April and the World Thinking Day is held on February 22nd.

  19. Ilhan Omar and Rashida Tlaib were the first Muslim women to represent in the US House of Representatives in the history of America in 2018.

  20. The US Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which, along with the United States House of Representatives —the lower chamber— constitutes the legislature of the US. The Senate chamber is located in the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. The 2018 United States Senate elections were held on November 6th, 2018. 33 of the 100 seats were contested in regular elections while two others were contested in special elections due to Senate vacancies in Minnesota and Mississippi. These midterm elections occurred during the presidency of Republican Donald Trump. The 2020 United States Senate elections were held on November 3, 2020, with the 33 class 2 seats of the Senate contested in regular elections. Of these, 21 were held by Republicans and 12 by Democrats. The winners were elected to six-year terms from January 3, 2021, to January 3, 2027.

  21. Hu Jintao was General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party from 2002 to 2012, President of the People’s Republic of China from 2003 to 2013 and Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 2004 to 2012. The current president is Xi Jinping, who took office in March 2013. Wang Qishan is the current Vice President. In March 2018, China approved the removal of the two-term limit on the presidency, effectively allowing Xi Jinping to remain in power for life.

  22. KP on 1st February, 2021 became first province to have universal coverage of health insurance for 100 percent population with the launch of Sehat Card in southern districts.

  23. The Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT) was signed by US President Bush and Russia’s President Putin at Moscow Summit on May 24th, 2002 to reduce their deployed strategic nuclear forces to 1,700-2,200 warheads apiece. This warhead limit takes effect and expires on the same day, December 31st, 2012. It was in effective from 1st June 2003 and expiration deadline was 5th February 2011.

  24. New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) was signed by US President Obama and Russia’s Medvedev on 8th April 2010 in Prague – the capital city in the Czech Republic since START – I in 1994. Effective from 5th February 2011 and expiration deadline was 5th February 2021. Both countries agreed on February 3rd, 2021, to extend it by five years, as allowed by the treaty text, until February 5th, 2026.

  25. British Pakistani Raffia Arshad has become the first ever hijab-wearing deputy district judge in the United Kingdom in May 2020.

  26. Youm-e-Takbir is celebrated as a national day in Pakistan on May 28th every year.

  27. Donald Trump, the 45th U.S. President, born on June 14th, 1946 in New York, United States. Joe Biden, 77, is the 46th U.S. president and the oldest man ever sworn into the office. He was born on November 20, 1942, in the blue collar city of Scranton, Pennsylvania.

  28. Pakistan marked the Plant for Pakistan Day on August 18th, 2019. One tree for Kashmir and another for Pakistan with the slogan ‘Har Bashar Do Shajar’ (every person to plant two trees).

  29. The United Nation recognised Day of Remembrance for all Victims of Chemical Warfare on 30th November every year since 2005. The day marks a tribute to the victims of chemical warfare, as well as to reaffirm the commitment of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW).

  30. The ten-year-old girl from Pakistan, Selena Khawaja became the ‘Mountain Princess’ when she successfully scaled over 7000-meter high Spantik peak in July 2019. Spantik is also known as Golden Peak and is in Spantik-Sosbun Mountains subrange of Karakoram in Nagar Valley, Gilgit Baltistan. Its northwest face features an exceptionally hard climbing route known as the “Golden Pillar”. It lies east of Diran and northeast of Malubiting.

  31. On February 26th, 2020, when Syed Muhammad Yahya Jafferi became the first registered patient of the novel coronavirus in Pakistan. He had returned to Karachi from Iran.

  32. Boko Haram uprising arose in Nigeria in 2009. It was founded by Mohammed Yusuf  in 2002, led by Abubakar Shekau since 2009.

  33. Founded in 1988, the World AIDS Day takes place on 1st December each year.

  34. The 2020 presidential election saw the most votes in U.S. history at 156 million and counting, and the highest participation rate since 1900. Joe Biden received more than 81 million votes — the most of any presidential candidate in U.S. history.

  35. The first patient of the Congo virus in 2021 was admitted in Jinnah Hospital, Karachi on 1st March, 2021.

  36. Dr. Jiko Luveni, the first female speaker of Fiji’s Parliament, died in office at the age of 72 on 22 December 2018.

  37. Indian cricket team skipper Virat Kohli scripted another record in the game. He broke Sachin Tendulkar’s record and became the quickest batsman to complete 22,000 runs. He reached the milestone in his 462nd innings. (as of November 2020)

  38. February 13th, 2021 marked the 110th birth anniversary of the poet Faiz Ahmed Faiz. Faiz Ahmed Faiz was born in Sialkot on February 13, 1911. He was the first Asian poet to receive the Lenin Peace Prize, awarded by the Soviet Union in 1962. This award was equivalent to the Nobel Prize in the then USSR. In 1976 he was awarded the Lotus Prize for Literature. Faiz Ahmad Faiz died on 20th November 1984. Naqsh e Faryadi (نقشفریادی) was Faiz Ahmad Faiz’s first book of poetry, published in 1941. Faiz was arrested as the civilian conspirator in the Ojhri Camp disaster which occurred on April 10, 1988.

  39. Mohammad Ali Sadpara was born in 1976 in Sadpara, a village in one of the river valleys of the Himalayan Baltistan region in Pakistan’s extreme north. He is the only Pakistani to have climbed eight of the world’s 14 highest mountains. He was part of the team (which included Italian alpinist Simone Moro) that successfully completed the first-ever winter ascent to the summit of the world’s ninth highest peak, Nanga Parbat, in 2016. On Friday 5th February, 2021, he went missing along with two others – Iceland’s John Snorri and Chile’s Juan Pablo Mohr – while trying to climb K2, the world’s second highest peak at 8,611m (28,251 ft) and also reputedly the deadliest. K2 is part of the Karakoram range. It is also known as Mount Godwin-Austen or Chhogori and locally Dapsang.

  40. Hassyan coal-fired power plant is a 2.4GW ultra-supercritical (USC) power plant under construction in Saih Shuaib, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is the first coal-fired power project in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. The $3.4bn independent power producer (IPP) project broke ground in November 2016.

  41. Ashraf Aman became the first Pakistani to reach the summit of K2 in 1977. Born in Gilgit-Baltistan, Samina Baig became the first Muslim Pakistani woman to climb Mount Everest (8,848.86 metres or 29,032 feet, as of December 8th, 2020 with the previous difference of 0.86 m or 2.8 ft), the world’s highest peak, at the age of 21 in 2013.

  42. Nazir Sabir became the first from Pakistan to have climbed Everest on 17th May 2000 as a team member on the Mountain Madness Everest Expedition led by Christine Boskoff from the United States that also included famed Everest climber Peter Habeler of Austria and eight Canadians.

  43. Global economic output is projected to grow by 4% in 2021 assuming widespread roll-out of a COVID-19 vaccine throughout the year, as per the World Bank’s Global Economic Prospects (GEP) report released on 5th January, 2021. This projection is still 5% below pre-pandemic levels.

  44. Pakistan is home to five of the 13 highest peaks of the world. Asad Memon from Larkana became the first Asian and first Pakistani to conquer Mount Kiliminjaro, located in Tanzania in February, 2021.

  45. Abdul Sattar Edhi, born in Bantva village of Gujrat, India, in 1928 and died at the age of 88 on July 8, 2016 in Karachi. He received the 1986 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service and he was also given Lenin Peace Prize for his services in the Armenian earthquake disaster in 1988. In 1989, Pakistan conferred on him, the Nishan-e-Imtiaz.

  46. The Inter­national Trade (INTA) Com­mittee of EU Parliament has extended the Genera­lised System of Preferences-Plus (GSP-Plus) status for Pakistan in March 2020, enabling the country to continue to enjoy preferential duties on exports for the next two years.

  47. The Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) was an American trade program designed to promote economic growth in the developing world by providing preferential duty-free entry for up to 4,800 products from 129 designated beneficiary countries and territories. GSP was instituted on January 1st, 1976, by the Trade Act of 1974.

  48. The Babri Masjid, built by Mir Baqi – a general of the first Mughal emperor Babur, is  located in Ayodhya (Uttar Pradesh state) of India. The incident of the demolition took place on December 6th, 1992.

  49. Usain Bolt is a Jamaican former sprinter, widely considered to be the greatest sprinter of all time. He is a world record holder in the 100 metres, 200 metres and 4 × 100 metres relay.

  50. The term ‘Shock and Awe’ has been popularly employed to describe US strategy during the initial stages of the 2003 Iraq War. The invasion of Iraq was by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein.

  51. Ain al-Asad airbase houses US and other foreign troops in the western Iraqi province of Anbar. The ten rockets struck the airbase on 3rd March, 2021.

  52. On August 2nd, 1990, Saddam Hussein led a well-equipped Iraqi army into Kuwait, a major supplier of oil to the United States. On January 16, 1991, US President George H. W. Bush announced ‘Operation Desert Storm’, the 42-day U.S. led air offensive in response.

  53. Apple co-founder and former Chief Executive Steve Jobs died on October 5th, 2011 at the age of 56 after battling with a rare pancreatic cancer. “Small Fry: A Memoir” is a 2018 memoir by Lisa Brennan-Jobs, daughter of Steve Jobs.

  54. THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense) is an American anti-ballistic missile defense system. This system has been designed and manufactured by the US company Lockheed Martin. South Korea is not the only country with the THAAD missile defense system. It has been previously deployed in the UAE, Guam, Israel and Romania.

  55. Dong Maeng (meaning alliance) is a joint military exercise between the United States Forces Korea and the Republic of Korea Armed Forces. The exercise, first introduced in 2019, is intended to be a smaller scale version of the bigger exercises Foal Eagle and Key Resolve.

  56. Pakistan announced a token contribution of 25,000 dollars to the UN Secretary General’s Peace-building Fund on 27th January, 2021.

  57. Kamal Mustafa Ataturk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey, was born in the town of Salonika in 1881 and died on 10th November, 1938. He was Turkey’s first president from 1923 to 1938. He abolished the Sultanate on 1st November, 1922 and declared it the Republic on 29th October, 1923 and the abolishment of Caliphate was made on 3rd March, 1924.

  58. Manal Awad Mikhail is the current governor of Damietta, Egypt. She was sworn in by President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi on 30th August, 2018. She is the first female Coptic Christian governor and second female governor in Egypt. Before this appointment, Mikhail was the deputy governor of Giza.

  59. Hana Khatib is an Israeli Arab lawyer and the first woman appointed to the post of Qazi (judge) for a sharia court in Israel.

  60. The Nobel Prize for 2018 was given to Denis Mukwege (Congo) and Nadia Murad (Iraq); for 2019 to Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed Ali to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea; for 2020 to the World Food Programme (WFP) for its efforts to combat hunger.

  61. Olga Tokarczuk and Peter Handke were awarded Nobel Prizes in Literature for the year 2018 & 2019 respectively.

  62. Hunter Biden, son of President Joe Biden, announced memoir ‘Beautiful Things’ to be out on April 6th, 2021

  63. On November 26, 2020, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) released a new book titled, ‘Future of Regional Cooperation in Asia and the Pacific’.

  64. The United Kingdom became the first country to declare a ‘climate emergency’ in 2019, followed by Ireland.

  65. Shahid Afridi in 2019 plublished his autobiography titled, ‘Game Changer’ with the journalist Wajahat S. Khan, Pakistan’s only Emmy-awarded reporter.

  66. The UAE sent the spacecraft, called Hope (or Al-Amal) on top of a Japanese H-IIA rocket from Japan’s Tanegashima Space Center on on July 20, 2020 — six days later than originally scheduled. The Hope Probe entered into its Martian orbit on February 9, 2021. The date coincides with the UAE’s 50th anniversary celebrations. This is the Arab world’s first space mission.

  67. The 5,600MW Barakah nuclear power plant (NPP) in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi is the first Arab world’s nuclear power project in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Located 53km from the city of Ruwais, the plant is being jointly developed by Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC) and Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO).

  68. The United Nations marked its 75th anniversary on 24th October 2020 on the theme, ‘The Future We Want, the UN We Need: Reaffirming our Collective Commitment to Multilateralism’. 24 October has been celebrated as United Nations Day since 1948.

  69. King Maha Vajiralongkorn, Rama X of Thailand, became the crown prince on May 4th, 2019.

  70. Greece announced the first state-sponsored mosque in Athens in September 2019. It was opened for public on Friday, November 6th, 2020.

  71. Australian-American lawyer, investment banker, and economist James Wolfensohn, who served as the President of the World Bank for 10 years, died on 25th November 2020. He had served as the ninth president of the World Bank Group from 1995 to 2005.

  72. An Argentine professional football player Diego Maradona died of a heart attack on 25th November, 2020. Maradona’s most iconic moment was arguably his infamous ‘Hand of God’ moment during Argentina versus England match in the 1986 FIFA World Cup. His second goal in the match is regarded as the “Goal of the Century”.

  73. Transparency International released its Corruption Perception Index (CPI) 2020, in which Pakistan’s rank slipped from 120th to 124th amongst 180 countries.

  74. The 2020 Afghanistan Conference titled, “Peace, Prosperity and Self-reliance” was co-hosted by Finland, Afghanistan and UNAMA and held virtually from Geneva, Switzerland on 23-24 November 2020. Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi led Pakistan’s delegation. Pakistan’s development assistance is US$ 1 billion and 6,000 fully funded scholarships being provided to Afghan students in leading Pakistani universities.

  75. Afghanistan has two languages – both Pashto and Dari– as official and most widely spoken in the country. The Afghan afghani (AFN) is the national currency since 2002.

  76. Sindh was the first province to make legislation for imposing sales tax on services within its jurisdiction.

  77. China launched a historic mission ‘Chang’e 5‘ to the moon to collect ‘first lunar samples’ on 23rd November 2020 and landed on the Moon on 1st December 2020 and returned to Earth on 17th December 2020 in Mongolia. It is the world’s first moon-sample mission in more than 40 years. Till date, only two nations, the US and the Soviet Union have been able to collect the lunar samples. The last mission was undertaken by Soviet Union’s Luna 24 mission in 1976.

  78. The International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women is celebrated on November 25th every year. The theme for 2020 was, “the World: Fund, Respond, Prevent, Collect”.

  79. The 15th G20 summit was was scheduled to take place in Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, on 21–22 November 2020. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it was held virtually. The two-day Summit was held under the theme “Realising the Opportunities of the 21st Century for All”. The 2019 G20 summit was hosted by Japan in Osaka for the first time. The Group of Twenty (G20) will be hosted by Italy in 2021, Indonesia in 2022, India in 2023 and Brazil in 2024.

  80. The five-day strategic military exercise Kavkaz-2020 (Caucasus 2020) held at the Kapustin Yar testing range in Russia’s Astrakhan Region from September 21-26, 2020.

  81. Shirin Ebadi was the first Muslim woman and the first Iranian to receive the Nobel Prize for Peace in 2003.

  82. Salamat Hashim, leader of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MNLF) based in Philippines, died on July 13th, 2003.

  83. Pakistan dropped to 107th place in the Global Innovation Index 2020 from last year’s 105th rank – even lower than Nepal and Sri Lanka in Central and Southern Asian group of countries.

  84. The first meeting of the Afghanistan, Pakistan, the US and China Quadrilateral Coordination Group (QCG)- a group working for reconciliation in Afghanistan, was held in Islamabad on January 11th, 2016.

  85. The first woman to win a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903. Marie Curie is the only woman to have won two Nobel Prizes; in 1911, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

  86. Muhammad Ali Jinnah Way was named on the stretch of Coney Island Avenue in Brooklyn New York on February 8th, 2019.

  87. The first Global Conference on Air Pollution and Health was held at WHO Headquarters in Geneva on 30 October – 1 November 2018.

  88. Japan topped the list of being the most powerful passport in the world for the year 2021, according to the report by the Henley Passport Index. Pakistan ranked 107th with a visa-free score of 32.

  89. The three-week long Pakistan-Turkey joint military exercise “ATATURK-XI 2021” was conducted at Tarbela of Haripur district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in February, 2021.

  90. Saim Shazli won the 20th Sindh Amateur Golf Championship at the Karachi Golf Club Golf Course on February 28th, 2021.

  91. Pakistan ranks 140th out of 162 countries in the Human Freedom Index 2020 report released by the Cato Institute. The report noted a decrease in personal freedoms since 2008 globally.

  92. The first-ever All-Virtual LLF 2021 took place from February 18 to 21st in Lahore.

  93. Prime Minister Imran Khan witnessed the first Chinese-made Covid-19 vaccine -Sinopharm- being administered to a frontline health worker in Islamabad on February 2, 2021.

  94. Australia launched a Miyawaki forest in Islamabad’s Fatima Jinnah Park on March 3, 2021.

  95. India on February 9th, 2021 pledged to build the $236 million Shahtoot Dam in Kabul to provide safe drinking water to 2.2 million residents.

  96. With two smaller provinces — Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochis­tan — pitching demands for higher resources to address their peculiar deprivations, the inaugural meeting of the 10th National Finance Commission (NFC) on February 18th, 2021 constituted six sub-groups to prepare sectoral recommendations.

  97. Turkey’s parliament formed a subcommittee to probe rising levels of racism and Islamophobia in European countries on 18th February, 2021.

  98. The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) was the centerpiece of President Barack Obama’s strategic pivot to Asia. Before President Donald J. Trump withdrew the United States on 23rd January 2017, the TPP was set to become the world’s largest free trade deal, covering 40 percent of the global economy.

  99. The world’s largest trade agreement, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) was signed on 15th November 2020, concluding more than 30 rounds of negotiations over eight years. It includes the 10 members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean), plus China, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand. The members make up nearly a third of the world’s population and account for 29% of global gross domestic product. The new free trade zone is bigger than both the US-Mexico-Canada Agreement and the European Union.

  100. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), formally called the United States International Children’s Emergency Fund, launched the COVID-19 Vaccine Market Dashboard on 21st December, 2020