English Essay (CSS 2023)

English Essay (CSS 2024)

English Essay Syllabus for CSS 2024

Candidates will be required to write one or more Essay in English. A wide choice of topics will be given. Candidates are expected to reflect comprehensive and research based knowledge on a selected topic. Candidate’s articulation, expression and technical treatment of the style of English Essay writing will be examined.

English Essay: CSS Past Papers Analysis


  • Hero-worship is the strongest where there is least regard for human freedom. (CSS 2000)
  • Personal liberty is the paramount essential to human dignity and human happiness. (CSS 2000)
  • Humanism. (CSS 2004)
  • All humans are born equal in dignity and rights but they are in shackles everywhere. (CSS 2010)
  • The War on terror has contributed to the growing abuse of human rights. (CSS 2015)
  • In the fight against terrorism and corruption, it is imperative not to compromise human rights and civil liberties. (CSS 2018)
  • Universal human equality is utopia. (CSS 2021)
  • Human development and economic sustainability. (CSS 2022)


  • Global Warming (CSS 2006)
  • The future of mankind in a global warming perspective. (CSS 2007)
  • Global Warming, fact or fiction? (CSS 2008)
  • Government should eliminate subsidies and incentives for manufacturers and consumers of electric cars as they are costly and do not do enough to protect the environment. (CSS 2015)
  • The threat of Global Warming and the ways to counter it. (CSS 2018)

Truth and Reason

  • The search for truth. (CSS 2005)
  • Truth in short supply (CSS 2006)
  • Truth is a rare commodity despite the freedom by the print and electronic media. (CSS 2011)
  • In this country reason does not apply to anything. (CSS 2011)
  • Truth is lived not taught. (CSS 2019)


  • Of all the needs a book has, the chief need is that it be readable. (CSS 2002)
  • The pleasures of reading. (CSS 2011)

Morality/ Principles

  • Art and Morality. (CSS 2002)
  • There comes a time to put aside principles and do what is right. (CSS 2006)
  • Moral depravity is the root cause of poverty. (CSS 2008)

I constructed my essay deriving my arguments from several discourses, i.e. (Politics, economics, society, philosophy, strategy, literature, science, religion, etc.). In my opinion, even an issue-based essay should be developed on creative lines. For that, candidates should also practice literary and abstract essays during the preparation phase. Furthermore, I never delved into the technicalities of the structure of essay. I believe writing comes naturally.

Atif Ameer (PSP) 2nd in Pakistan, CSS 2018-19 (Essay Marks 52)

Global Issues & International Relations

  • Moral standards in international relations. (CSS 2000)
  • World scenario in 21st century and Pakistan’s role in it. (CSS 2002)
  • The end of cheap oil. (CSS 2004)
  • Globalization and electronic media. (CSS 2007)
  • The world politics stands more derisive than it was ever before due to the specific imperialist designs. (CSS 2010)
  • The time we live in is the winter of the world. (CSS 2011)
  • Brexit means globalization is the rhetoric of the privileged, and capitalism will return ferociously as ever. (CSS 2017)
  • Modernity is an unending project. (CSS 2017)
  • China – Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and its Socio-economic Implications for the Region and the World. (CSS 2018)
  • Pakistan and the future of Kashmir cause. (CSS 2020)
  • Global power dynamics and Pakistan’s foreign policy. (CSS 2020)
  • Global trade and trade policies of China. (CSS 2022)
  • Global politics and international relations. (CSS 2022)
  • World food systems: the economics of agriculture. (CSS 2022)

Science and Technology

  • Advancement in science and technology is the gateway to the economic prosperity of a country. (CSS 2000)
  • The suffering soul in the Scientific Age. (CSS 2012)
  • Modern day communication via social networks puts an end to true and sincere relationships. (CSS 2013)
  • The War on terror has contributed to the growing abuse of human rights. (CSS 2015)
  • The introduction of new digital technologies has radically altered identities. (CSS 2015)
  • Labor saving devices are more troublesome than they are worth. (CSS 2015)
  • Modernity is an unending project. (CSS 2017)
  • Expanding information technology: a curse or blessing. (CSS 2019)
  • Is Pakistan ready for the digital revolution? (CSS 2020)
  • Covid-19 — A wake up call for Pakistani researches. (CSS 2021)
  • Human inventions move societies backward. (CSS 2021)


  • On tolerance. (CSS 2001)
  • Only the wisest and stupidest of men never change. (CSS 2003)
  • Violence is the last refuge of the incompetent. (CSS 2014)

For English essay, I used to make outlines and practice paragraph writing. The key strategy in attempting an essay is to write it in simple, logical, coherent and precise way. One should refrain from using long sentences, jargons and difficult expressions. Furthermore, in order to avoid incoherence and jumps between essay paragraphs and outline, I left first two sheets of answer sheet for final outline, which I only wrote, once I was done writing essay.

Aamina Ihsan (PAS) 18th in Pakistan, CSS 2018-19 (Essay Marks 48)


  • Globalization and electronic media. (CSS 2007)
  • Power of Media in the Modern World. (CSS 2009)
  • Modern day communication via social networks puts an end to true and sincere relationships. (CSS 2013)
  • The emerging power of Social Media: Prospects and Problems. (CSS 2018)

War/ Peace/ Globalization

  • Can we prevent the third world war? (CSS 2008)
  • Great nations win without fighting. (CSS 2014)
  • World as a global village: Learning to live together. (CSS 2016)
  • Are modern wars not holy wars? (CSS 2017)
  • Pros and cons of globalization. (CSS 2021)
  • Intercultural communication is a panacea to avoid third world war. (CSS 2021)
  • An analysis of the concept of globalization of markets. (CSS 2022)

Democracy/ Governance/ Administration / Crisis / Tourism

  • Good governance and the role of the public servant. (CSS 2000)
  • Devolution of power in Pakistan. (CSS 2001)
  • The future of democracy in Pakistan. (CSS 2009)
  • The food crisis: problems, challenges and opportunities for Pakistan. (CSS 2009)
  • Pakistan is rich in natural resources but very poor in their management. (CSS 2010)
  • Disaster management and government preparedness. (CSS 2011)
  • Democracy is a culture rather than a process. (CSS 2012)
  • In a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence. (CSS 2015)
  • Crisis of good governance in Pakistan: Need for reforms and institution building. (CSS 2016)
  • Democracy in Pakistan: Hopes and Hurdles. (CSS 2018)
  • Democracy and illiteracy do not move together. (CSS 2019)
  • Promoting tourism in Pakistan: opportunities and challenges. (CSS 2020)
  • Digital democracy: social media and political participation. (CSS 2022)

My essay followed a fixed trajectory: Introduction (Opening + Thesis Statement) – Context – Exposition – Authority – Analysis – Conclusion. This allowed me to present my arguments clearly and coherently. When you practice, read your essay and try to see it from an examiner’s perspective. If it is too text-intensive, boring, long and redundant, , or even the argument you made is not clear, you will not get good marks.

Mohammad Murtaza (PAS), 3rd in Pakistan, CSS 2017 (Essay Marks 45)


  • Education makes a people easy to lead, but difficult to drive, easy to govern, but impossible to enslave. (CSS 2000)
  • Economic prosperity of a nation is directly proportional to the level of literacy in it. (CSS 2001)
  • Higher Science Education in the developing countries. (CSS 2002)
  • Education has for its object the formation of character. (CSS 2002)
  • Need for serious planning in technical education in Pakistan. (CSS 2002)
  • Reforms in Examination systems. (CSS 2005)
  • The present system of Education must assume some of the responsibilities of our failure. (CSS 2007)
  • Higher Education as an agent of change. (CSS 2008)
  • Co-education; Merits and Demerits. (CSS 2009)
  • English as the medium of Education in Pakistan. (CSS 2009)
  • A critical analysis of Education system in Pakistan. (CSS 2012)
  • There should be colleges and schools just for men/boys and some just for women/girls. (CSS 2013)
  • Meaning and purpose of education. (CSS 2013)
  • Privatizing higher education-generating knowledge or making more money for the opulent. (CSS 2014)
  • Higher Education in Pakistan: Ills and Remedies. (CSS 2018)
  • Democracy and illiteracy do not move together. (CSS 2019)
  • Classrooms decide the future of the nation. (CSS 2019)
  • Women universities as agents of change. (CSS 2020)
  • Meaning purposive education. (CSS 2021)

National Integration

  • The barbarity of ethnic cleansing. (CSS 2000)
  • National Integration. (CSS 2001)
  • Water crisis and national unity. (CSS 2016)


  • We never know the worth of water till the well is dry. (CSS 2000)
  • Dilemma of the water and energy crisis in Pakistan. (CSS 2003)
  • Do not waste water even if you were at a running stream. (CSS 2021)


  • Dilemma of the water and energy crisis in Pakistan. (CSS 2003)
  • Energy Crisis in Pakistan: Causes and Consequences. (CSS 2012)


  • Public office is a public trust. (CSS 2001)
  • Bureaucracy doldrums. (CSS 2021)

The Essay paper for CSS 2017 was somewhat out of the box. Despite that, I had complete control on my nerves and great confidence in my writing skills. I chose the topic “Is colonial mentality impeding the progress of Pakistan?” I supported this stance. First, I brainstormed and then wrote an outline on a rough page. Then, I presented it on the answer sheet in an impressive way so as to facilitate the examiner. I wrote almost twenty arguments or paragraphs to prove my stance. The language I used was simple yet flawless.

Syed Fazul Shah (PSP), 3rd in Balochistan, CSS 2017-18 (Essay Marks 44)

Poverty/ Progress

  • Progressive alleviation of poverty in Pakistan – an overview. (CSS 2000)
  • Strategies for the alleviation of poverty. (CSS 2005)
  • Moral depravity is the root cause of poverty. (CSS 2008)
  • Look to the east for holistic progress. (CSS 2014)
  • Does foreign aid help to achieve economic stability? (CSS 2016)


  • Advancement in science and technology is the gateway to prosperity of a country. (CSS 2000)
  • Economic prosperity of a nation is directly proportional to the level of literacy in it. (CSS 2001)
  • Austerity as a solution to all our economic problems. (CSS 2002)
  • Economic problems in Pakistan and how to meet them. (CSS 2002)
  • Socio-Economic Challenges faced by Pakistan. (CSS 2005)
  • Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan. (CSS 2006)
  • Promotion of tax culture in Pakistan: Perspective, prospects and challenges. (CSS 2016)
  • Does foreign aid help to achieve economic stability? (CSS 2016)
  • Real development should transform people’s lives, not just economic statistics. (CSS 2018)
  • New war fronts lie in economic zones. (CSS 2019)
  • Pakistan’s informal economy: the way forward. (CSS 2020)
  • IMF bailouts: roads to stability or recipes for disaster. (CSS 2020)
  • Is there such a thing as ethical consumerism? (CSS 2022)

Justice/ Rule of Law

  • Justice delayed is justice denied. (CSS 2001)
  • All humans are born equal in dignity and rights but they are in shackles everywhere. (CSS 2010)
  • Will “Rule of law” always remain an impracticable myth in our country? (CSS  2018)

The essay which I attempted was argumentative in nature. So, I tried my best to follow the structure of such essays. I introduced the topic by giving a brief overview of the points I would be discussing; presented some examples from history, contemporary world and Pakistan; highlighted some counter arguments against the mentioned examples and re-countered them to justify my point, and concluded the topic with summing up all the arguments and justifications I had given in the body of the essay.

Nawab Sameer Hussain Laghari (PAS), 2nd in Sindh, CSS-2016-17 (Essay Marks 45)


  • A little philosophy inclineth man’s mind to atheism; but depth in philosophy bringeth man’s minds about religion. (CSS 2002)
  • Pluralistic vision of Islam. (CSS 2004)
  • Islam versus the West. (CSS 2005)
  • The image of Islam in the western world and responsibilities of the Muslim Ummah. (CSS 2007)
  • Peace; the essential message of our religion. (CSS 2008)
  • Materialism is the death of spirituality. (CSS 2008)
  • Fair play and life, as it is lived, in the land of the pure. (CSS 2011)
  • Let there be more light in the corridors of worship places. (CSS 2019)

United Nations

  • The future of UNO: Hopes and Hurdles. (CSS 2009)
  • The UNO has failed to measure up to the demands of its charter. (CSS 2010)
  • The United Nations in the 21st Century: Obligations and Limitations. (CSS 2012)
  • More and more international military engagements by the United Nations; is the world moving towards peace? (CSS 2017)

Women/ Gender

  • Persecuted poor woman. (CSS 2005)
  • The state of women rights in Pakistan. (CSS 2007)
  • Status of Women in Islam. (CSS 2009)
  • Why is there no status of the third gender in Pakistan? (CSS 2010)
  • Can women be equal to men in Pakistan? (CSS 2010)
  • Does Pakistan society regard women as the angel in the house or source of all evils? (CSS 2011)
  • Social and Economic Securities for Women in Islam. (CSS 2012)
  • Gender equality is a myth. (CSS 2013)
  • Women sports persons are new ambassadors of the soft image of Pakistan. (CSS 2014)
  • Gender equality is a myth! (CSS 2016)
  • Frailty, thy name is woman. (CSS 2016)
  • Feminism is not really a Third World issue. (CSS 2017)
  • New Waves of feminism and our culture. (CSS 2019)
  • Women universities as agents of change. (CSS 2020)
  • Gender equality: a popular slogan. (CSS 2021)
  • The controversial issues of feminism in contemporary women’s rights movements. (CSS 2022)

Accountability/ Corruption

  • Without independent truth-finding commission , accountability is unachievable. (CSS 2010)
  • Religion has done more harm than help to human relations in the world. (CSS 2010)

Essay is the most difficult thing in CSS, and, perhaps, rightly so. There are numerous ways to write it but the key is to understand the topic and giving sound arguments in grammatically correct English.

Muhammad Murad (PSP), 7th in Pakistan, CSS 2017 (Essay Marks 60)

Nationalism/ Minorities

  • Being a minority is a fate no one wants. Can nationalism be really inclusive? (CSS 2017)


  • The purification of politics is an iridescent dream. (CSS 2000)
  • Politics is perhaps the only profession for which no preparation is thought necessary. (CSS 2002)
  • Personalization Of Pakistani Politics (CSS 2006)
  • Politics is the art of the possible. (CSS 2007)
  • Insanity in individuals is something rare but in groups, parties and nations it is the rule. (CSS 2011)
  • The emerging power of Public Opinion. (CSS 2012)
  • Not the economy but politics is the key to success. (CSS 2013)
  • The creation of new provinces in Pakistan: Implications for an integrated country. (CSS 2016)
  • Polarized politics: the issues and challenges of democracy in Pakistan. (CSS 2020)

Management/ Life/ Discipline / Ideology

  • Sweet are the uses of adversity. (CSS 2000)
  • “Turn not thy cheek in scorn towards folk nor walk with pertness in the land”. (Al-Quran) (CSS 2001)
  • Experience is the name everyone gives to their mistakes. (CSS 2001)
  • Self-conceit may lead to self destruction. (CSS 2001)
  • Attitude of indifference. (CSS 2003)
  • Young habits die-hard. (CSS 2003)
  • Lots of folks confuse bad management with destiny. (CSS 2006)
  • Life’s tragedy is that we get old too soon and wise too late. Benjamin Franklin (CSS 2006)
  • A country is backward because it’s people are backward. (CSS 2007)
  • Time management is the keynote of success. (CSS 2008)
  • Lack of discipline – a national disaster. (CSS 2008)
  • Dreams for the future rely on the work of today. (CSS 2008)
  • Health is not a condition of matter, but of mind. (CSS 2009)
  • Without good communication skills, life becomes impossible in the modern world. (CSS 2011)
  • Obesity is the root cause of all diseases. (CSS 2012)
  • Let me take care of today, tomorrow shall take care of itself. (CSS 2013)
  • Country life is better than city life. (CSS 2013)
  • The character of a nation can be judged by its symbolic narratives. (CSS 2014)
  • Punctuality is the virtue of boredom. (CSS 2015)
  • Luxury predecessors become the necessity of successors. (CSS 2015)
  • When life throws you lemons, make lemonade. (CSS 2015)
  • We have to learn to be our own best friends, because we fall too easily into the trap of being our own worst enemies. (CSS 2016)
  • Is colonial mentality impeding Pakistan’s progress? (CSS 2016)
  • Ideologies thrive on notions of resistance, yet change is a simulation. (CSS 2017)
  • Life without controversy is no life. But why should one not choose the safe haven of conformism? (CSS 2017)
  • Too many of us are not living our dreams because we are living our fears. (CSS 2018)
  • Beware the barrenness of a busy life! (CSS 2018)

Structure and coherence make the key to success in the essay paper. I avoided verbosity and instead ensured I had understood the idea well. I also placed a lot of emphasis on the overall structure of the essay, making sure my paragraphs were coherent, sentences were well structured and the overall flow of the ideas was good.

Muhammad Abrahim Shah (PAS) 3rd in Pakistan, CSS 2018-19 (Marks 61)

Nuclear Politics

  • Nuclear weapons are ‘not only a great peril, but a great hope. (CSS 2006)
  • The more developed a country, the more leathly it is armed. (CSS 2007)


  • International crisis of Terrorism. (CSS 2002)
  • Terrorism as a new threat to the contemporary world. (CSS 2007)
  • Pakistan’s War on terror and its impact on our psyche and politic socio-economic fronts. (CSS 2009)
  • The War on terror has contributed to the growing abuse of human rights. (CSS 2015)
  • How is terrorism and its perception shaped by the Mass Media? (CSS 2022)

Art/ Literature/ Poetry

  • Every art is an imitation of nature. (CSS 2002)
  • Art and Morality. (CSS 2002)
  • Art Critics and reviewers. (CSS 2003)
  • Humour in Urdu Literature (CSS 2006)
  • Poetry is the highest form of expression – the greatest proof is the Holy Quran. (CSS 2008)
  • Literature is the best criticism of life. (CSS 2010)
  • Literature as a great cultural artifact. (CSS 2014)
  • Language is a fit data for research in humanities and social science. (CSS 2014)
  • Can meaning be fixed? (CSS 2014)
  • The place of Urdu in Pakistan and Supreme Court’s ruling on making Urdu the official language of the country. 2016
  • Literature is a lonely planet of idealists. (CSS 2017)
  • Art for peace. (CSS 2019)
  • Do we really need literature in our lives? (CSS 2020)

Literary/ Philosophy

  • It is not only fine feathers that make fine birds. (CSS 2001)
  • Existentialism. (CSS 2003)
  • Liberalism (CSS 2006)
  • Brain, like hearts, go where they are appreciated. (CSS 2006, 2012)
  • There is no great genius without a mixture of madness. (CSS 2009)
  • The time we live in is the winter of the world. (CSS 2011)
  • Beggars can’t be choosers. (CSS 2012)
  • If gold rusts what shall the iron do. (CSS 2013)
  • Anticipation is often greater than realization. (CSS 2015)
  • Sometimes we do not see what we see. (CSS 2019)
  • I fall upon the thorns of life I bleed. (CSS 2021)
  • Imagination is more important than knowledge. (CSS 2022)

Diversity/ Freedom

  • Dialogue is the best course to combat terrorism. (CSS 2010)
  • Free speech should have limitations. (CSS 2013)
  • I disapprove of what you say, but I defend to death your right to say. (CSS 2015)
  • I do not agree with what you have to say, but I’ll defend to the death your right to say it. (CSS 2020)

Essay is the very paper most aspirants fail. Reason? Lack of practice! Most aspirants know the reason but still they do not practice. If one cannot practice a long essay daily, one should write, at least, outline, introduction and conclusion daily, and practice a long essay once or twice a week. I did the same and when I sat to structure my essay, I did not face any problem in generating ideas and structuring them instantly.

Bakhtiar Ismail (PAS), 1st in Balochistan, CSS 2017-18 (Essay Marks 66)

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