Pakistan Affairs Syllabus for CSS 2023
The syllabus for Pakistan Affairs can be divided into two broad parts:
- Pre-partition era (before 1947)
- Post partition era (after 1947)
Pre-Partition Era Portion
- Ideology of Pakistan: Historical perspective of the Ideology of Pakistan, definition and explanation of the Ideology of Pakistan. Ideology of Pakistan in light of the thinking of Muslim scholars. role of ideology in Pakistan Movement, validity of Ideology of Pakistan in post-partition era.
- Muslim Rule in the Sub-continent: Historical perspective of the Muslim rule in the Sub-continent, impact of Muslim rule in the Sub-continent, reasons for downfall of the Muslims. Mutiny of 1857: reasons and impacts (especially on the Muslims of Subcontinent).
- Muslim Reform Movements: Efforts and role of Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi, Shah Waliullah. Sayyid Ahmad Shaheed, Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan in reforming the Muslims of Sub- continent.
- Educational Reforms: Role of Aligarh, Oeoband, Nadwah and other educational institutions, impacts of these institution on the social, cultural, economic and political aspects of the Muslims of Sub-continent.
- Pakistan Movement: Important legislations passed by British Government in India (Act of 1909, Government of India Act 1919, Government of India Act 1935) and their impact on the political situation in the subcontinent, Nehru Report and Fourteen Points of Quaid-e-Azam, Congress rule (1937-39), Pakistan Resolution (23rd March, 1940), Cripps Mission, Cabinet Mission Plan, Partition plan and legacy of partition and its impact on Pakistan-lndia relationship after independence .
Post-Partition Era Portion
- Geography and Society of Pakistan: Geo-strategic importance of Pakistan, natural resources of Pakistan (gas, oil, hydel, renewable resources), important agricultural products of Pakistan (total output of major crops, per hectare yield of major crops), issues faced by the agriculture sector in Pakistan, steps taken by various governments to improve the agricultural sector.
- Major Industries of Pakistan: Issues faced by the industrial sector in Pakistan, steps taken by various regimes to improve the industrial sector, future of the industrial sector and challenges ahead.
- Education Sector in Pakistan: Status of education sector in Pakistan, enrolment and institutions of various types (primary, middle, secondary and higher secondary level), gender disparity in education, steps taken for improvement of education sector, higher education in Pakistan, challenges and progress in higher education.
- Nuclear Program of Pakistan, its Safety and Security, International concerns: Pakistan as signatory of various conventions regarding nuclear security, role of SPD (Strategic Planning Division), nuclear doctrine of Pakistan, nuclear deterrence vis-a-vis India.
- Pakistan and Changing Regional Apparatus: Pakistan and changing regional apparatus with special focus on Afghanistan and Iran.
- Regional Cooperation Organizations: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and the role of Pakistan.
- Civil Military Relations in Pakistan: Historical perspective of civil military relations, comparative analysis of social and economic development in civil-military regimes, reasons for martial laws/ dictatorial regime in Pakistan.
- Economic Challenges in Pakistan: Analysis of various economic indicators of Pakistan’s economy, GDP, growth rate bf GDP, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), unemployment in Pakistan, share of various sectors (social, agricultural, industrial) in the GDP, population living below poverty line, budget deficit, total imports of Pakistan, total exports of Pakistan, trade deficit, total debt of Pakistan (domestic & external), debt repayment issue, role of IMF and World Bank. Historical perspective of the economy of Pakistan in different decades with special focus on economic growth in the last decade.
- Main Challenges to Economy of Pakistan: Debt issue, unemployment, trade deficit, budget deficit, low foreign direct investment, foreign reserves, population explosion, low GDP growth rate, remittances issue, corruption, ease of doing business index, etc.
- The Palestine & Kashmir Issue: Historical background of the Palestine issue, Balfour declaration, Palestine partition plan, Arab-Israel wars, current situation and issues of settlements, role of UN and other international organizations. Kashmir issue; historical background, challenges and way forward.
- Changing Security Dynamics for Pakistan; Challenges to National Security of Pakistan: External Threats: India, Afghanistan (instability), Iran (competitive ports). Internal Threats: Political instability, economic instability. non-state actors, terrorism, religious extremism, nationalist elements etc.
- Political Evolution Since 1971: The causes of 1971 imbroglio, political situation after 1971, constitution of 1973 and constitutional crisis thereof.
- Pakistan and US War on Terror and Post 9/11 Foreign Policy of Pakistan: Historical perspective of Afghan issue, reasons for Pakistan’s involvement in war on terror. impact of war on terror on social, economic and political aspects of Pakistan, AF-Pak policy under Obama and policy under Trump regime, Challenges to Pakistan and way forward.
- Evolution of Democratic System in Pakistan: The Constitutional developments in Pakistan, Objectives Resolution. Constitutions of 1956, 1962, 1973, Important constitutional amendments and their impacts on the democratic process, history of martial laws and their impacts, democratic evolution in different regimes, causes of weak democratic institutions, challenges to the democratic process in Pakistan.
- Pakistan’s National Interest and Challenges to the Sovereignty: Definition of national interest, Main determinants of the national interest, Role of diplomacy in securing the national interest. Internal challenges to sovereignty; economic, social, nationalist movement, energy issues, etc. External challenges to the national sovereignty: hostile neighbours, global power politics, water issues with India, wave of terrorism, regional instability. Hydro politics: water issues in domestic and regional context, water apportionment formula among provinces under IRSA (Indus River System Authority), Issues and challenges under IRSA , Water crisis in Pakistan, challenges and way forward, Kalabagh Dam issue, Indus water treaty, Pakistan’s water issue with India (Wuller Barrage, Baglihar Dam. Kishan Ganga Dam, etc.)
- Ethnic Issues and National Integration: The current ethnic profile of Pakistan, Causes of dismemberment of East Pakistan, Pros and cons of making new provinces to tackle ethnic issue, feasibility, challenges and way forward, Restructuring of NFC (National Finance Commission) and CCI (Council of Common Interest) to resolve the provincial disharmony, Nationalist elements in Pakistan, Baluchistan issue: reasons, challenges and way forward.
- Proxy Wars – Role of External Elements: Role of India, Afghanistan and Iran regarding instability of Pakistan, Nationalist elements in Pakistan and external support to the nationalist elements, Tackling the issue of covert external threats.
Pakistan Affairs: CSS Past Papers Analysis
Topic 1: Ideology of Pakistan: definition and elucidation, historical aspects. Muslim rule in the sub-continent: its downfall and efforts for Renaissance. Movements for reforms: Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi, Shah Waliullah, Sayyid Ahmad Shaheed, Aligarh, Deoband, Nadwah, and other educational institutions – Sindh Madrassah and Islamia College Peshawar. Ideology of Pakistan in the light of Speeches and statements of Allama Iqbal and Quaid- e-Azam.
- Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was in no way pro-British. Agree or disagree, answer your question with arguments. (CSS 2015)
- It was over-reaction of Hindus to the partition of the Bengal in 1905 that widened the gulf between Muslims and Hindus. Comment. (CSS 2015)
- Khilafat Movement was an emotional movement. Discuss. (CSS 2015)
- Separation of East Pakistan, though a tragic part of History of Pakistan, was not the negation of two nation theory. Comment. (CSS 2015)
- Give an account of the life and services of Shah Waliullah. How did he save the Indian Muslims from political annihilation and religious degeneration? (CSS 2016)
- The Aligarh Movement was a pure educational venture but it had deep impacts on Indian Discuss. (CSS 2016)
- Critically analyze the elections of 1937 and the sufferings and grievances of the Muslims under the Congress rule in the provinces (1937-1939). How much did it help in popularizing the idea of a separate Muslim state in India? (CSS 2016)
- Jinnah in his Presidential Address to the annual session of All India Muslim League in March 1940 said, “The problem in India is not of an inter-communal character, but manifestly of an international one, and it must be treated as such.” Write note on the Two Nation Theory and the Lahore Resolution of March 1940 in the light of this statement. (CSS 2016)
- Critically evaluate the foundations of Allama Iqbal’s concept of Muslim separatism in the context of Indo-Pak Subcontinent. (CSS 2018)
- Discuss the 3rd June Plan or Mountbatten Plan and also describe how it was implemented? (CSS 2018)
- Critically examine Congress Ministries of 1937. How far it is correct to suggest that it paved the way for a separate Muslim homeland in India? (CSS 2019)
- How the reform movement of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi influenced the history of Muslim India? (CSS 2020)
Topic 2: Land and people of Pakistan: Geography, Society, Natural resources, Agriculture, Industry and education with reference to characteristics, trends and problems.
- Briefly discuss the main features of cultural heritage of Pakistan. (CSS 2015)
- Pakistan’s national culture reflects unity in diversity. Elaborate. (CSS 2017)
- Enumerate the measures adopted by HEC for promotion of higher education and qualitative research in Pakistan. (CSS 2017)
- Efficient use of its natural resources can make Pakistan a prosperous nation. Discuss in the light of present situation of Pakistan. (CSS 2019)
Topic 3: Pakistan and Changing Regional Apparatus
Topic 4: Nuclear Program of Pakistan, its Safety and Security; International Concerns
Topic 5: Regional Cooperation Organizations (SAARC, ECO, SCO) and the Role of Pakistan
- Explore the significance of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) for Pakistan. (CSS 2017)
- China, Pakistan-Russia cooperation will find suitable support mechanism in Shanghai Cooperation organization (SCO). Elaborate. (CSS 2020)
Topic 6: Civil-Military Relations in Pakistan
Topic 7: Economic Challenges in Pakistan
- What major economic challenges are being faced by Pakistan? What recommendations do you suggest to deal with these issues? (CSS 2019)
Topic 8: Non-Traditional Security Threats in Pakistan: Role of Non-State Actors
- Write note on the Afghan War since 1979 and its impacts on Pakistan. How far the emergence of the “Non-State Actors” and Non-Traditional Security Threats in Pakistan can be attributed to the decades-long warfare in Afghanistan? (CSS 2016)
- Define non-state actors. ‘Non-state actors are posing more threat to Pakistan’s national security than threats from external state actors.’ Argue in favour or against. (CSS 2018)
Topic 9: Pakistan’s Role in the Region
Topic 10: The Palestine Issue
Topic 11: Changing Security Dynamics for Pakistan: Challenges to National Security of Pakistan
Topic 12: Political Evolution Since 1971
- How general elections in 2002, 2008 and 2013 strengthened democracy in Pakistan? (CSS 2017)
- Describe the political system of Pakistan. Which form of government is suitable to make country politically stable? (CSS 2018)
- Discuss the main features of Political culture of Pakistan. (CSS 2020)
Topic 13: Pakistan and US War on Terror
- Critically evaluate the role of Pakistan in “The War on Terror”. (CSS 2015)
- Discuss revival of Pak-US relations in context of present US-Taliban peace process. (CSS 2020)
Topic 14: Foreign Policy of Pakistan Post 9/11
- Write note on the post 9/11 foreign policy of Pakistan. What role do you foresee for Pakistan in regional and global politics in the near future? (CSS 2016)
Topic 15: Evolution of Democratic System in Pakistan
Topic 16: Ethnic Issues and National Integration
- There is crisis of national integration in Pakistan since its creation. What measures do you suggest for the promotion of national integration of Pakistan? (CSS 2018)
Topic 17: Hydro Politics; Water Issues in Domestic and Regional Context
Topic 18: Pakistan’s National Interest
Topic 19: Challenges to Sovereignty
Topic 20: Pakistan’s Energy Problems and their Effects
- Explore the option of alternative energy resources to overcome energy crisis in Pakistan. (CSS 2017)
- What are the main causes of the energy crisis in Pakistan? What measures do you recommend to address it? (CSS 2019)
- Pakistan’s energy crisis was due to the lack of strategy and political will. Discuss. (CSS 2020)
Topic 21: Pakistan’s Relations with Neighbors excluding India
Topic 22: Pakistan and India Relations Since 1947
- What are the major provisions of Simla Agreement (1972) between Pakistan and India? How it was helpful for establishment of durable peace in the region? (CSS 2020)
Topic 23: The Kashmir Issue
- Discuss the Kashmir problem in its entirety; throwing light on its background and prospects of possible solutions to this core issue between India and Pakistan. (CSS 2016)
Topic 24: The war in Afghanistan since 1979 and its impact on, and challenges to Pakistan in the Post 2014 era.
Topic 25: Proxy Wars: Role of External Elements
- What is meant by the term “Proxy War”? Are there any extrinsic factors at play in the internal security situation of Pakistan? (CSS 2020)
Topic 26: Economic Conditions of Pakistan, the Most Recent Economic Survey, the Previous and Current Budgets, and the Problems and Performance of Major Sectors of Economy.
Topic 27: The Recent Constitutional and Legal Debates, the Latest Constitutional Amendments and Important Legislation, Legal Cases and the Role of Higher Courts.
- Discuss the role of judiciary in the constitutional development of Pakistan. (CSS 2017)
- Discuss the nature of centre-province relations under the 1973 Constitution. (CSS 2018)
- How far the nature of Centre-Province relations has changed under various amendments to the 1973 constitution? Evaluate. (CSS 2019)
Topic 28: The Prevailing Social Problems of Pakistan and the Strategies to Deal with Them, Poverty, Education, Health and Sanitation.
- The population growth in Pakistan can erupt like an atomic bomb. Comment (CSS 2019)
Topic 29: Out of Syllabus (applied Questions)
- Was Islamization during Zia era a need of Pakistan or was it a political propaganda? (CSS 2015)
- CPEC is a flagship project of One Belt One Road (OBOR) and a regional game changer. Explain. (CSS 2017)
- Discuss the changing trends in Pakistan- US relations since 2001. (CSS 2018)
- Critically analyze the key causes of delaying construction of DAMS in Pakistan. Give some suggestions to revert this collateral loss. (CSS 2019)
- Federalism and Ethnic Conflict Regulation in India and Pakistan (Adeney, Katharine).
- Labor, Democratization and Development in India and Pakistan (Candland, Christopher)
- Perception, Politics and Security in South Asia: The Compound Crisis in 1990 (Chari)
- The Future of Pakistan (Cohen Stephen)
- Frontline Pakistan: The Struggle with Militant Islam. (Hussian, Zahid)
- Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy (Jalal, Aisha and Bose, Sugata)
- Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia. (Jalal, Aisha)
- Conflict Between India and Pakistan: an Encyclopedia. (Lyon, Peter)
- Back to Pakistan: A Fifty Year Journey. (Mass, Leslie Noyes)
- Judging the State: Courts and Constitutional Politics in Pakistan. (Newberg, Paula R)
- Pakistan: Manifest Destiny. (Qureshi, Atif)
- Pakistan, America, and the Future of Global Jihad. (Riedel, Bruce.)
- Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War. (Schofield, Victoria)
- Making Sense of Pakistan. (Shaikh, Farzana)
- A Brief History of Pakistan. (Wynbrandt, James)