Identifying the word

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VERB: A word denoting action, occurrence, or existence. Examples: ran, jump, shout, sweat, thinks, feels, sleeps, eat, laugh, are, is, was, has.

The President met with foreign diplomats on Tuesday.

NOUN: A word that names a person, place, thing, idea, animal, quality, or action. Nouns function as the subject of the sentence. They also function as objects, complements, appositives, and modifiers, as well as in direct address. Examples: child, John, New York, books, pizza, love, pony, generosity.

The rose smells sweet. The sun shines bright. Salman, my brother, is a professional musician.

PRONOUN: A word that takes the position of a noun and functions as nouns do. Examples: he, she, it myself, me, theirs, ours, we, you, yours.

He attended a luncheon in his honour on Wednesday. The book are where you left them.

ADJECTIVE: A word that modifies, qualifies or describes nouns and pronouns. Generally, adjectives appear immediately before the words they modify. Examples: pretty girl, talented doctor, young athlete, blue book.

The small child begged for a bedtime story. There are twenty boys in this class.

ADVERB: A word that modifies verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. An “ly” ending almost always changes an adjective to an adverb. Examples: spoke quickly, ran hastily, worked frantically.

Sehrish reluctantly agreed to serve on my committee. She pronounced the word quite correctly.

Many adverbs do not end in “ly.” However, all adverbs identify when, where, how, how far, how much, etc. Examples: hang low, stand straight, added wrong, study hard.

Salma never loses her temper.

PREPOSITION: A word that establishes a relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. The relationship can be one of time, space, direction, place accompaniment, cause, or manner. Examples: on, between, down, in, of, since, to (not a complete list)

Akbar sat beside Ahmed on the bus.

CONJUNCTION: A word that functions as a connector between words, phrases, and clauses. There are coordinating, correlating, and subordinating conjunctions.Examples: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (coordinating). when, until after, before, although (subordinating).

I work part-time although I don’t need the money. He was not handsome, yet he was a very successful actor. Two and two make four. I ran fast, but missed the train.

ARTICLE: A word that is used before a noun and functions as an adjective Examples: The (definite article), a and an (indefinite articles).

The bees that were on the flowers stung Tahira.

A man gave us directions to the airport. [A is used before a noun beginning with a consonant sound]

An article in the paper caught my attention. [An is used before a noun beginning with a vowel sound]

INTERJECTION: An exclamation expressing emotion. Examples: Wow! Help! Stop! Ouch!

Wow! Look at all the snow. Hurrah! We have won the game.

Note: As words are divided into different classes according to the work they do in sentences, it is clear that we cannot say to which part of speech a word belongs unless we see it used in a sentence.

They arrived soon after. (Adverb) They arrived after us. (Preposition) They arrived after we had left. (Conjunction)